Metropolitans of Kiev

Originally posted 2/22/2011.

Which Metropolitans of Kiev were Catholic and which ones were Orthodox?

We consult, among other sources, the venerable Bollandist Fr. John Stilting, S.J.’s “Dissertation on the Conversion and Faith of the Russians” in Acta Sanctorum 9:II:i-xxvii (PDF file pages 25-51). Page numbers in parentheses indicate the page of the downloaded PDF document.

St. Michael I of Kiev (988-992): Catholic
-see Bollandists 10:XI:237 (October, tome XI, page 237)
-Pope was John XV (XVI) of Rome (985-996)
-Patriarch of Constantinople was the Catholic St. Nicholas II Chrysoberges (984-996) [AASS 8:I:120F-121D (146-147); 10:XI:310 (346); Siméon Vailhé in 1907 DTC 3.2:1359]

Leontius of Kiev (992–1008): Catholic
Fr. Mauricio Gordillo, S.J. in the 1938 DTC 14.1:217: the letter denouncing unleavened bread is not by Leontius of Kiev, but by a metropolitan in Bulgaria after the time of the anti-Catholic bishops Leo of Ochrid and Michael Cerularius
Mgr. Pelesz I:188, §29 (200):
-Popes were John XV (XVI) (985-996), Gregory V (996-999), Sylvester II (999-1003), John XVII (XVIII) (1003), and John XVIII (XIX) of Rome (1003-1009)
-Antipope was John Philagathus of Piacenza (“John XVI (XVII)” 997-998; †1013)
-Patriarchs of Constantinople were Catholic Sisinnius II (996-998) [Siméon Vailhé in 1907 DTC 3.2:1359] and Sergius II (1001-1019)

John I of Kiev (1019–1035): Catholic

-Popes were Benedict VIII (1012-1024), John XIX (1024-1032) and Benedict IX of Rome (1032-1045)
-Patriarchs of Constantinople were Sergius II (1001-1019), Eustathius (1019-1025), and Alexius I the Studite (1025-1043)

Theopemptus of Kiev (1035–1049): Catholic

-Popes were Benedict IX (1032-1045), Gregory VI of Rome (1045-1046; †1048), Clement II (1046-1047), Damasus II (1048), and St. Leo IX the Wonderworker of Rome (1049-1054)
-Antipopes were John of Sabina (“Sylvester III” 1045; †1063) and the ex-pope Benedict IX (1047-1048)
-Patriarchs of Constantinople were Alexius I the Studite (1025-1043) and the anti-Catholic Michael I Cerularius (1043-1058)

Hilarion of Kiev (1051–1055): Catholic

Fr. Yves Congar, O.P., After Nine Hundred Years, p. 95, n. 7: Metropolitan Hilarion of Kiev “remained in communion with Rome”
-Popes were St. Leo IX the Wonderworker (1049-1054) and Victor II of Rome (1055-1057)
-Patriarch of Constantinople was anti-Catholic Michael I Cerularius (1043-1058)

Ephraim I of Kiev (1055–1061): Catholic
Fr. Yves Congar, O.P., After Nine Hundred Years, p. 95, n. 7: Metropolitan Ephraim I of Kiev “remained in communion with Rome”
-Popes were Victor II (1055-1057), Stephen IX (1057-1058), and Nicholas II of Rome (1058-1061)
-Patriarchs of Constantinople were the anti-Catholic Michael I Cerularius (1043-1058) and the probably anti-Catholic Constantine III Leichoudes (1059-1063) [AASS 8:I:126E-127B (152-153)], of whom Joan Mervyn Hussey says in NCE IV:177: “Leichudes was a distinguished scholar and orator, who had studied and taught rhetoric and civil law. He was also a wise administrator and churchman, a man of marked integrity who won the respect of his contemporaries”

George of Kiev (1062–1073): Catholic
Fr. Yves Congar, O.P., After Nine Hundred Years, p. 95, n. 7: Metropolitan George of Kiev “remained in communion with Rome”
Fr. Gordillo in the 1938 DTC 14.1:218: the anti-Catholic letter said to be a 1072 work of Metropolitan George of Kiev is probably a 12th century work
-Pope was Alexander II of Rome (1061-1073)
-Patriarchs of Constantinople were Constantine III Leichoudes (1059-1063) and the anti-Catholic John VIII Xiphilinus (1064-1075) [AASS 8:I:127C-128D (153-154)], who frustrated an attempted reunion of the Churches in 1072 under Pope Alexander II of Rome (1061-1073) and Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Ducas (1071-1078; †1090) [Fr. Jugie I:402]

John II of Kiev (1080-1089): Orthodox



-but Fr. Yves Congar, O.P., After Nine Hundred Years, p. 95, n. 7 says: Metropolitan John II of Kiev “remained in communion with Rome”
-Popes were St. Gregory VII (1073-1085), Bl. Victor III (1086-1087), and Bl. Urban II of Rome (1088-1089)
-Antipope was Guibert of Ravenna a.k.a. Clement III (1080-1100)
-Patriarchs of Constantinople were Cosmas I (1075-1081) [AASS 8:I:128D-129E (154-155)], Eustratius Garidas (1081-1084) [AASS 8:I:129E-130B (155-156)], and the anti-Catholic Nicholas III Grammaticus (1084-1111) [AASS 8:I:130E-131C (156-157)]

Nicholas I of Kiev (1097–1101): Catholic

Fr. Yves Congar, O.P., After Nine Hundred Years, p. 95, n. 7: Metropolitan Nicholas I of Kiev “remained in communion with Rome”
-Popes were Bl. Urban II (1088-1099) and Paschal II of Rome (1099-1118)
-Antipopes were Guibert of Ravenna (“Clement III” 1080-1100) and Theodoric (1100)
-Patriarch of Constantinople was anti-Catholic Nicholas III Grammaticus (1084-1111) [AASS 8:I:130E-131C (156-157)]

Nicephorus I of Kiev (1104-1121): Orthodox
-anti-Catholic according to Avvakumov 100:31, nn. 112-113: Letter to Prince Vladimir II Monomakh (1053-1125; Prince of Pereyaslav 1094-1113; Ruler of Grand Rus 1113-1125) on the Latin Faith [Ponyrko, Epistoljarnoe nasledie 71-73; on date of this letter see ibid. 60]; Letter to Prince Sviatopolk II Iziaslavich (r. 1093-1113) on the Latin Faith (Napisanie na Latinu ko knjazju) [Ponyrko, Epistoljarnoe nasledie 73-79; on date of this letter see ibid. 63-64]
-he was in communion with Patriarch Nicholas III Grammaticus of Constantinople (1084-1111), who was anti-Catholic according to Encyclopedia Britannica Online and Fr. Venance Grumel, A.A. of happy memory; the latter said he wrote against Filioque, azymes, and papal primacy to Patriarch Symeon II of Jerusalem in 1089 [Echos d’Orient 38 (1939) 104–17]; Jean Darrouzès says these letters are fake [REB 23 (1965) 43–51; REB 28 (1970) 221–37]
Mgr. Pelesz I:290-293 (302-305):
-Popes were Paschal II (1099-1118), Gelasius II (1118-1119), and Callistus II of Rome (1119-1124)
-Antipopes were Burdin (“Gregory VIII” 1118) and Maginulf (“Sylvester IV” 1105-1111)

Nicetas of Kiev (1122-1126): uncertain
Bollandists 9:II:xviii:EF, §73 (42): he was in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, but it is uncertain if Nicetas was Catholic or schismatic
Mgr. Pelesz I:293 (305):
-Popes were Callistus II (1119-1124) and Honorius II of Rome (1124-1130)
-Patriarch was John IX Agapetus of Constantinople (1111-1134) [AASS 8:I:131D-132B (157-158)]

Michael II of Kiev (1130-1145): uncertain
Bollandists 9:II:xviii::EF, §73: he was in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, but it is uncertain if Michael II was Catholic or schismatic
Mgr. Pelesz I:294-295 (306-307) is not clear on whether Michael II was Catholic or Orthodox
-Popes were Innocent II (1130-1143), Celestine II (1143-1144), Lucius II (1144-1145), and Bl. Eugene III of Rome (1145-1153).
-Antipopes were Pietro Pierleoni (“Anacletus II” 1130-1138) and Gregorio Conti (“Victor IV” 1138; †1139)
-Patriarchs were John IX Agapetus of Constantinople (1111-1134) [AASS 8:I:131D-132B (157-158)], Leo Styppeiotes of Constantinople (1134-1143) [AASS 8:I:132B-133B (158-159)], and Michael II Kourkouas of Constantinople (1143-1146) [AASS 8:I:133C-E (159)]

Clement Smoliatich of Kiev (1147-1154): Catholic
Fr. John Stilting, S.J.: Bollandists 9:II:xix:A, §74:
Patriarch Nicholas IV Mouzalon of Constantinople (1147-1151) [AASS 8:I:136B-E (162)] was anti-Catholic (he wrote a treatise against Filioque) and he did not confirm Clement’s election
Mgr. Pelesz I:295-298 (307-310):
-Popes were
-other Patriarchs of Constantinople were Theodotus II (1151-1153) [AASS 8:I:136F-137B (162-163)], Neophytus I (1153), and Constantine IV Chliarenus (1154-1156) [AASS 8:I:139A-C (165)]
Constantine I of Kiev (1156-1159): uncertain
Bollandists 9:II:xix:A, §75 (43): “de hisce nihil certi invenio”
Bollandists 10:X:869:A, §20 (897):
Bollandists 10:XI:147 (183):
Mgr. Pelesz I:298-299 (310-311):
-Pope was Adrian IV of Rome (1154-1159)
-Antipope was Ottavio di Montecelio (“Victor IV” 1159-1164).
-Patriarch was Luke Chrysoberges of Constantinople (1156-1169) [AASS 8:I:139C-140C (165-166)]

Theodore of Kiev (1161-1163): uncertain
Bollandists 9:II:xix:A, §75 (43): “de hisce nihil certi invenio”
Mgr. Pelesz I:299-300 (311-312):
-Pope was Alexander III of Rome (1159-1181)
-Antipope was Octavius (“Victor IV” 1159-1164)
-Patriarch was Luke Chrysoberges of Constantinople (1156-1169) [AASS 8:I:139C-140C (165-166)]

John IV of Kiev (1164-1166): probably Catholic
Bollandists 9:II:xix:AB, §75 (43): “Joannes probabilius Catholicus”, and according to Ignatius Kulczynski, O.S.B.M., he wrote a letter of obedience to Pope Alexander III of Rome at the command of Grand Prince Rostislav I Mstislavich of Kiev (1154, 1159–1167), whom the Eastern Orthodox commemorate on March 14 (see his OCA entry)
Mgr. Pelesz I:300-302 (312-314):
-Pope was Alexander III of Rome (1159-1181)
-Antipope was Guido of Crema (“Pascal III” 1165-1168)
-Patriarch was Luke Chrysoberges of Constantinople (1156-1169) [AASS 8:I:139C-140C (165-166)]

Constantine II of Kiev (1167-1169):
Bollandists 10:X:870B, §26 (898):
Mgr. Pelesz I:302-303 (314-315):
-Pope was Alexander III of Rome (1159-1181)
-Antipopes were Guido of Crema (“Pascal III” 1165-1168) and Giovanni of Struma (“Callistus III” 1168-1177)
-Patriarch was Luke Chrysoberges of Constantinople (1156-1169) [AASS 8:I:139C-140C (165-166)]

Michael III of Kiev (1171):

-Pope was Alexander III of Rome (1159-1181)
-Antipope was Giovanni of Struma (“Callistus III” 1168-1177)
-Patriarch was anti-Catholic Michael III Anchialus of Constantinople (1170-1177) [AASS 8:I:140C-141F (166-167)], concerning whom F. Chiovaro says in NCE IX:598: “In a synod (1171) Michael made a public response to the legation’s offer in a dialogue with the emperor. He violently attacked the pope [Alexander III] as no pastor but a sick member of the fold in need of a cure. He said union with the Turks would be preferable to union with the Latins”

Nicephorus II of Kiev (1182-1198): uncertain

Mgr. Pelesz I:303 (315): a recent source reports that he was loyal to Constantinople, i.e., Orthodox, “while Kulczynski and other Western writers describe him as a prelate devoted to the pope”
Aurelio Palmieri: Nicephorus II did not accept Pope Clement III’s invitation to the Third Crusade (1189–1192)
-Popes were
-Patriarchs of Constantinople were Theodosius I Boradiotes (1179-1183) [AASS 8:I:142B-F (168)], Basil II Camaterus (1183-1186) [AASS 8:I:142F-143D (168-169)], Nicetas II Mountanes (1186-1189) [AASS 8:I:143D-144A (169-170)], Leo Theoticites (1189-1190) [AASS 8:I:144BC (170)], anti-Latin Dositheus (1190-1191) [AASS 8:I:144C-145A (170-171)] who “offered unconditional absolution to any Greek killing a Westerner” [Dr. Warren Carroll III:132], George XII Xiphilinus (1191-1198) [AASS 8:I:145B-146A (171-172)], and perhaps (started reigning August 5) the anti-Catholic John X Camaterus (1198-1206) [AASS 8:I:146A-147E (172-173)]

Matthew of Kiev (1200-1220): Orthodox
Bollandists 9:II:xix:C, §76 (43): “Itaque allegatis argumentis certo non evincitur, Matthaeum fuisse Catholicum. Certo dubitare vix possim, quia Graeci paulatim abusus quosdam hisce temporibus in Russiam invexerint, Russorumque animos a Latinis abalienaverint.”
Bollandists 10:X:870D, §27 (898):
Mgr. Pelesz I:304-310 (316-322):
-Popes were Innocent III (1198-1216) and Honorius III of Rome (1216-1227)
-anti-Catholic Greek Patriarchs of Constantinople were John X Camaterus (1198-1206) [AASS 8:I:146A-147E (172-173)], Michael IV Autoreianus (1207-1213) [AASS 8:I:153E-154B (179-180)], Theodore II Eirenicus (1213-1215) [8:I:154C-155A (180-181)], Maximus II (1215; in exile) [AASS 8:I:155CD (181)], Manuel I Charitopoulus (1216-1222; in exile) [AASS 8:I:155E-156B (181-182)]
-Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople were Thomas Morosini (1204-1211) [AASS 8:I:147F-148F (173-174)] and Gervase (1215-1219) [AASS 8:I:149A-F (175)]

Cyril I of Kiev (1225-1233): uncertain
Fr. John Stilting, S.J., Bollandists 9:II:xx:A, §79 (44): “Cum tamen non carerent erroribus, fides eorum, ut minimum, dubia haberi debet, nec ausim certo asserere, Cyrillum I fuisse a schismate immunem. Suspicor inter episcopos non satis de fide convenisse, quod alii aliis addictiores essent Romanae Ecclesiae”
Mgr. Pelesz I:310-316 (322-328):
-Popes were Honorius III (1216-1227) and Gregory IX of Rome (1227-1241)
-Greek Patriarch Germanus II of Constantinople (1223-1240) was anti-Catholic [AASS 8:I:156C-158C (182-184)]
-Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople were Matthew (1221–1226) [AASS 8:I:150A-151A (176-177)] and Simon (1227-1233) [AASS 8:I:151A-C (177)]

Cyril II of Kiev (1233-1236):


-Pope was Gregory IX of Rome (1227-1241)
-Greek Patriarch Germanus II of Constantinople (1223-1240) was anti-Catholic [AASS 8:I:156C-158C (182-184)]
-Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople were Simon (1227-1233) [AASS 8:I:151A-C (177)] and Nicholas de Castro Arquato (1234–1251) [AASS 8:I:151C-F (177)]

Joseph I of Kiev (1237-1240): uncertain
Fr. John Stilting, S.J.: “Post Cyrillum unum aut duos, quorum fides dubia est, secutus est Josephus, natione Graecus, patria Nicaenus…” [Bollandists 9:II:xx:C, §81 (44)]
Mgr. Pelesz I:316-317 (328-329) is not clear on whether Joseph I of Kiev was Catholic or Orthodox
-Pope was Gregory IX of Rome (1227-1241)
-Greek Patriarch Germanus II of Constantinople (1223-1240) was anti-Catholic [AASS 8:I:156C-158C (182-184)]
-Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was Nicholas de Castro Arquato (1234–1251) [AASS 8:I:151C-F (177)]

Peter Akerovych of Kiev (1241-1246): Catholic
-see Fr. Gordillo in Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. Vacant et al. (1938) 14.1:232
-at 13th Ecumenical Council (Lyons I) in 1245
Mgr. Pelesz I:388 (400):
-Popes were Gregory IX (1227-1241), Celestine IV (1241), and Innocent IV of Rome (1243-1254)
-Greek Patriarch of Constantinople was Manuel II (1244-1255) [AASS 8:I:158F-160F (184-186)]
-Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was Nicholas de Castro Arquato (1234–1251) [AASS 8:I:151C-F (177)]

Cyril III of Kiev (1247-1281): Orthodox
Bollandists 9:II:xxi:B, §84 (45): Siricovium ad manum non habeo, sed merito dubio, an hic magis faveat fidei Danielis, qui fortasse numquam sincere conversus est. Certe concilium Kioviense sub Cyrillo III celebratum, quod edidit Kulczynskius in Appendice pag. 36, non favet sincera et stabili Russorum subjectioni, cum in eo ne verbum quidem legatur de Romana Ecclesia.”
Fr. Gordillo in 1938 DTC 14.1:235: Cyril III “left [Galicia] for ‘beyond the forests’ to avoid becoming a member of the Catholic court of Daniel I of Galicia (†1264), who was Catholic from 1248-1256; Cyril III was “anti-Latin and unfortunately away from the major movements for religious union that stirred the West”
Mgr. Pelesz I:317-327 (329-339):
-for info on Alexander Nevsky see Mgr. Pelesz I:247-248 (259-260), 322-324 (334-336)
-Popes were Innocent IV (1243-1254), Alexander IV (1254-1261), Urban IV (1261-1264), Clement IV (1265-1268), Bl. Gregory X (1271-1276), Bl. Innocent V (1276), Adrian V (1276), John XXI (XX) (1276-1277), Nicholas III (1277-1280), and Martin IV of Rome (1281-1285)
-Greek Patriarchs of Constantinople were Manuel II (1244-1255), anti-Catholic Arsenius Autoreianus (1255-1259) [AASS 8:I:160F-161F (186-187); Fr. Jugie IV:328], Nicephorus II (1260-1261) [AASS 8:I:161F-162D (187-188)], Arsenius Autoreianus (1261-1267) [AASS 8:I:162D-164A (188-190)], Germanus III (1267; became Catholic in 1274) [AASS 8:I:164A-165E (190-191)], anti-Catholic Joseph I Galesiotes (1267-1275) [AASS 8:I:165E-166C (191-192)], and Catholic John XI Beccus (1275-1282) [AASS 8:I:166C-167F (192-193)]
-Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople were Nicholas de Castro Arquato (1234–1251) [AASS 8:I:151C-F (177)], Pantaleon Giustiani (1253–1278) [AASS 8:I:151F-152E (177-178)], and Girolamo Masci, O.F.M. (1278-1288; later Pope Nicholas IV of Rome 1288-1292)

Maximus of Kiev (Vladimir as of 1299) (1285-1305): Orthodox
Bollandists 9:II:xxi:BC, §85 (45): “Catholicus hic patriarcha Cyrillum III ad debitam subjectionem perducere potuit, eique successorem dare Catholicum, uti actum aiunt Koialovicius et Kulczynskius, dicentes Maximum anno 1283 Constantinopoli a Vecco in Russiam missum metropolitam. Verum si Maximus a Vecco creatus est metropolita, id factum oportuit ante finem anne 1282, quo Veccus XXVI Decembris sede sua deterbatus est ab Andronico imperatore schisma renovante. Quidquid tamen sit de modica temporis differentia, cum Constantinopoli rursum fuerit patriarcha schismaticus, ubi Maximus ornatus erat dignitate metropolitica, non ausim asserere ipsum mansisse Catholicum, praesertim si, eo mortuo, Russi successorem petierint Constantinopoli, ut scribit Kulczsynskius ad XXI Decembris in Petro metropolita.”
Mgr. Pelesz I:327 (339): “it is clear that Maximus was a supporter of the schism”
-Popes were Honorius IV (1285-1287), Nicholas IV (1288-1292), St. Celestine V (1294), Boniface VIII (1294-1303), Bl. Benedict XI (1303-1304), and Clement V of Rome (1305-1314)
-Greek Patriarchs of Constantinople were anti-Catholic Gregory II Cyprius (1283-1289) [AASS 8:I:168F-169F (194-195)], anti-Catholic Athanasius I (1289-1293) [AASS 8:I:169F-170D (195-196)], and anti-Catholic John XII (1294-1303) [AASS 8:I:170D-172C (196-198)]
Peter of Kiev (Moscow as of 1325) (1308-1326): Catholic, then Orthodox
omitted from 1940 Russian Catholic Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom
Andrew Shipman: Peter, Metropolitan of Kieff, who was then in union with Rome, in 1316 changed his see from that city to the city of Vladimir upon the Kliazma, now about midway between Moscow and Nizhni-Novgorod, for Vladimir was then the capital of Great Russia. In 1322 he again changed it to Moscow.”
Bollandists 9:II:xxi:E, §86 (45): “Haec quidem amicitia cum Latinis et exceptio legatorum Apostolicorum, si de utraque constaret, favorabilem suspicionem ingereret de recta Petri fide; at necdum certam faceret ejus obedientiam.”
Bollandists 9:II:xxi:F, §87 (45): “Praeterea Vladislaus Poloniae rex in litteris ad Joannem XXII, quas edidit Raynaldus in addendis tomi 15, ad annum 1324 [Baronius XXIV (1313-1333):273:43] nuntias mortem duorum ultimorum principum ‘Ruthenorum de gente schismatica,’ auxilium contra Tartaros implorans. Itaque cum rex ille Russos vocet ‘gentem schismaticam,’ ejus metropolitam eodem tempore Catholicum fuisse non ausim asserere.”
Mgr. Pelesz I:330-334 (342-346):
-Avignon Popes were Clement V (1305-1314) and John XXII of Rome (1316-1334)
-Greek Patriarchs of Constantinople were anti-Catholic John XII (1294-1303), anti-Catholic Athanasius I (1303-1310) [AASS 8:I:172C-173C (198-199)], Nephon I (1310-1314) [AASS 8:I:173C-174C (199-200)], John XIII Glycas (1315-1320) [AASS 8:I:174C-175A (200-201)], Gerasimus I (1320-1321) [AASS 8:I:175A-176B (201-202)], and Isaiah (1323-1334) [AASS 8:I:176B-F (202)]

Theognostus of Kiev (1328-1353): Orthodox
Bollandists 9:II:xxi:F, §87 (45): nothing to indicate that Theognostus of Kiev (1328-1353) was Catholic
Bollandists 10:XI:90 (126):
Mgr. Pelesz I:334-337 (346-349):
-he was anti-Palamite:
-Avignon Popes were John XXII (1316-1334), Benedict XII (1334-1342), Clement VI (1342-1352), and Innocent VI of Rome (1352-1362)
-Patriarchs of Constantinople were Isaiah (1323-1334) [AASS 8:I:176B-F (202)], John XIV Calecas (1334-1347; anti-Palamite) [AASS 8:I:177A-178B (203-204)], Isidore I (1347-1350; Palamite) [AASS 8:I:178B-179A (204-205)], and anti-Catholic Callistus I (1350-1354; Palamite) [AASS 8:I:179B-F (205)]
Alexis of Moscow (1354-1378): Orthodox
omitted from 1940 Russian Catholic Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom
Bollandists 9:II:xxi:F, §88-xxii:D, §91 (45-46): Fr. Stilting says that he does not call Alexis a schismatic, but he did not find any proof that Alexis was Catholic
Fr. Stilting adds that the legitimate Byzantine Emperor John V Palaeologus (1341-1376, 1379-1390, 1390-1391) became Catholic under Bl. Pope Urban V of Rome (1362-1370) in 1369
Raynaldus [Baronius XXVI(1356-1396):145:10] says that in 1367 Patriarchs Philotheus Coccinus of Constantinople (1364-1376), Niphon of Alexandria (1366-1385), and Lazarus of Jerusalem (1334–1368) [AASS 5:III:lxxi:F-lxxii:D, §279-282 (83-84)] sent letters of submission to Bl. Pope Urban V of Rome (1362-1370), according to the pope’s 11/8/1367 letter
-however, Patriarch Philotheus Coccinus of Constantinople was a notorious opponent of reunion efforts and persecutor of Byzantine Catholics [F. Chiovaro in NCE XI:307], and Patriarch Niphon of Alexandria “signed the Tome against” Prochorus Cydones in 1368 [Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria Website]
-the pious men Kulczynski, Fr. Godefrid Henschen, S.J., and Fr. Albert Wijuk Kojałowicz, S.J. all argued that Alexis of Moscow was a Catholic who died in the odor of sanctity
Bollandists 2:II:639-641 (677-679):
Bollandists 10:XI:70-71 (106-107):
Mgr. Pelesz I:348 (360): Alexis of Moscow was anti-Catholic
-Avignon Popes were Innocent VI (1352-1362), Bl. Urban V (1362-1370), and Gregory XI of Rome (1370-1378)
-Greek Patriarchs of Constantinople were anti-Catholic Philotheus Coccinus (1354-1355; see NCE XI:307 by F. Chiovaro and AASS 8:I:179F-180C [205-206]), anti-Catholic Callistus I (1355-1363) [AASS 8:I:180C-F (206)], anti-Catholic Philotheus Coccinus (1364-1376) [AASS 8:I:181A-182A (207-208)], and Macarius (1376-1379) [AASS 8:I:182BC (208)]

Michael Mityay of Moscow (locum tenens 1378-1379):

Mgr. Pelesz I:348-351 (360-363):
-Pope was Urban VI of Rome (1378-1389)
-Antipope was Robert of Geneva (“Clement VII” 1378-1394)
-Greek Patriarch was Macarius of Constantinople (1376-1379) [AASS 8:I:182BC (208)]
-Titular Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople were James of Itri (1376-1378), William of Urbino, O.F.M (1379), and Paul of Corinth (1379)

Cyprian of Kiev (1381-1382; 1390-1406): Orthodox
Bollandists 9:II:xxii:D, §92 (46): “Verum nihil allegat, quo probari posit certo Catholicum fuisse Cyprianum: ideoque rursum cogor tanto magis de fide ejus dubitare, quanto incertior est chronotaxis Kulczynskii, quia patriarcha Constantinopolitani circa id tempus non omnes ague certo fuerunt schismatici.”
Bollandists 10:XI:225 (261): anti-Catholic Patriarch Philotheus of Constantinople ordained Cyprian of Kiev, who was very good friends with St. Stephen the Enlightener of Perm (†1395)
Mgr. Pelesz I:354-357 (366-369):
Joseph Lins: St. Hedwig of Poland’s (r. 1384-1399) husband King Vladislaus II Jogaila of Poland (r. 1386-1434) became Roman Catholic in 1386, but after 1387 “the Russian portions of Lithuania (Kiev, Tchernigoff, etc.) remained Greek Orthodox”
-Popes were Urban VI (1378-1389) and Boniface IX (1389-1404), and Innocent VII of Rome (1404-1406)
-Antipopes were Robert of Geneva (“Clement VII” 1378-1394), Pedro de Luna (“Benedict XIII” 1394-1417), and Baldassare Cossa (“John XXIII” 1400-1415)
-Greek Patriarchs of Constantinople were Nilus Cerameus (1379-1388) [AASS 8:I:182C-F (208)], Anthony IV (1389-1390) [AASS 8:I:182F-183B (208-209)], Macarius (1390-1391), Anthony IV (1391-1397), Callistus II Xanthopoulus (1397) [AASS 8:I:183B-E (209)], and Matthew I (1397-1410) [AASS 8:I:183E-184B (209-210)]
-Titular Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople were Angelo Correr (1390-1405), later Pope Gregory XII of Rome (1406-1415; †1417) and Louis of Mitylene (1406-1408)
Pimen of Moscow (1382-1384):

Mgr. Pelesz I:351-354 (363-366):
-Pope was Urban VI of Rome (1378-1389)
-Antipope was Robert of Geneva (“Clement VII” 1378-1394)
-Greek Patriarch was Nilus Cerameus of Constantinople (1379-1388)

Dionysius I of Kiev (1384-1385):

-Pope was Urban VI of Rome (1378-1389)
-Antipope was Robert of Geneva (“Clement VII” 1378-1394)
-Greek Patriarch was Nilus Cerameus of Constantinople (1379-1388)

Photius of Kiev (1408-1431): Orthodox
Bollandists 9:II:xxii:E, §92 (46): schismatic according to all authors
Mgr. Pelesz I:358-360 (370-372):
-Popes were Gregory XII (1406-1415; †1417) and Martin V of Rome (1417-1431)
-Antipopes were Pedro de Luna (“Benedict XIII” 1394-1417) and Baldassare Cossa (“John XXIII” 1400-1415)
-Greek Patriarchs of Constantinople were Matthew I (1397-1410), Euthymius II (1410-1416) [AASS 8:I:184C-F (210)], and the Catholic Joseph II of Constantinople (1416-1439) [AASS 8:I:184F-186E (210-212)]

Gregory I Tsamblak of Kiev (1414-1420): Catholic

-rival of the schismatic Metropolitan Photius of Kiev (1408-1431)
Mgr. Pelesz I:361-365 (373-377):
-in 1418 Gregory I Tsamblak submitted to Pope Martin V of Rome (1417-1431) at the 16th Ecumenical Council (Constance 1414-1418) [Fr. Gill ###]
-left Catholic exposition of Our Lord’s words “Thou art Peter…” (Mt 16:18) [Fr. Jugie IV:333]

-Popes were Gregory XII (1406-1415; †1417) and Martin V of Rome (1417-1431)
-Greek patriarchs of Constantinople were Euthymius II (1410-1416) and Joseph II (1416-1439), who died a sincere Catholic [AASS 8:I:184F-186E (210-212)]
-Titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was Jean de La Rochetaillée (1412-1423; †1437)
Gerasim of Kiev (1433-1435):
Bollandists 9:II:xxiii:CD, §95 (47): “Verisimile igitur est, Photium non fuisse desertum a schismaticis, sed hosce ei usque ad mortem paruisse; et tunc demum ei a schismaticis suspectum esse Harasimum illum, de quo agit Koialovicius. Jam vero ex hisce intelligitur, metropolitam quidem et Russos, Poloniæ regi aut Lituaniæ duci subditos, majori saltem ex parte Catholicos fuisse; suum tamen etiam caput fuisse schismaticis, qui in Moscovia aliisque locis vicinis superiores videntur mansisse, ut manifestius siet ex periculo sequentis metropolitæ.”
Mgr. Pelesz I:365-366 (377-378):
Andrew Shipman: Gerasim (1431-5) was the successor of Photius at Moscow, and had correspondence with Pope Eugene IV as to the reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches”
-Pope was Eugene IV of Rome (1431-1447)
-Greek Patriarch was Joseph II of Constantinople (1416-1439), who died a sincere Catholic [AASS 8:I:184F-186E (210-212)]
-Titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople was Giovanni Contarini (1424-1438?)

Isidore of Kiev (1436-1458; †1464): Catholic
-became a sincere Catholic in 1439
Mgr. Pelesz I:366-376 (378-388):
Fr. Gordillo in the 1938 DTC 14.1:243: the Russian Church’s rejection of the Ecumenical Council of Florence was “due exclusively to Prince Basil
-for “probably purely political” motives [Fr. Joseph Gill, S.J., The Council of Florence 361], Grand Duke Basil II of Moscow (1425-1462) condemned him “for turning the Russian people over to the Latins” and tyrannically and illegally deposed him in 1441 [Andrew Shipman]
-notorious anti-Catholic Mark of Ephesus praised Isidore when he ascended to the Metropolitanate of Kiev: “A man who really is a reflection of Christ, gracious in character and angelic in form; a happy and outstanding blend of simplicity and sagacity with a gift of speech that surpasses the flow of rivers; generous and liberal to such a degree as not to grudge even his own coverings, if occasion demand” (G. Mercati, Scritti d’Isidoro il cardinale Ruteno (=Studi e Testi 46, Rome 1926), p. 155) [qtd. in Fr. Gill, Personalities of the Council of Florence 78 n. 1]
-Popes were Eugene IV (1431-1447), Nicholas V (1447-1455), Callistus III (1455-1458), and Pius II of Rome (1458-1464)
-Greek Patriarchs of Constantinople were Catholic Joseph II (1416-1439) [AASS 8:I:184F-186E (210-212)] and Catholic Metrophanes II (1440-1443) [AASS 8:I:189C-190B (215-216)]

Illegitimate: Jonah of Moscow (1448-1461): Orthodox
Bollandists 10:XI:101: the holy Pope Pius II of Rome (1458-1464) called Jonah of Moscow a “son of perdition”
Mgr. Pelesz I:376-377 (388-389):
-Popes were Nicholas V (1447-1455), Callistus III (1455-1458), and Pius II of Rome (1458-1464)
-Antipope was Amadeus of Savoy (“Felix V” 1439-1449; †1451)
-Greek Patriarchs of Constantinople were Catholic Gregory III Mammas the Wonderworker (1443-1459) [AASS 8:I:190B-192B (216-218)], anti-Catholic Gennadius II Scholarius (1454-1456; †1472) [AASS 8:I:196B-198D (222-224)], and anti-Catholic Isidore II Xanthopoulus (1456-1462) [AASS 8:I:198D-F (224)]
Gregory II the Bulgarian of Kiev (1458-1472): Catholic
J. Krajcar in NCE XII:421: Gregory remained loyal to Rome until death (1472)”
-Popes were Pius II (1458-1464), Paul II (1464-1471), and Sixtus IV of Rome (1471-1484)
-Greek Patriarchs of Constantinople were anti-Catholic Isidore II Xanthopoulos (1456-1462), Sophronius I Syropoulos (1462-1464), anti-Catholic Gennadius II Scholarius (1464), Joasaph I (1465-1466) [AASS 8:I:199A-E (225)], anti-Catholic Mark II Xylokaraves (1466) [AASS 8:I:199E-200A (225-226)], anti-Catholic Symeon I of Trebizond (1466) [AASS 8:I:200B-E (226)], anti-Catholic Dionysius I (1466-1471) [8:I:200E-201E (226-227)], and Symeon I (1471-1475) [8:I:201EF (227)]
-Titular Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople were Cardinal Isidore of Kiev (1458-1462) and Basilios Cardinal Bessarion (1463–1472)

Michael Drucki of Kiev (1474-1480): Catholic
Bollandists 9:II:xxiv:E, §102 (48):
Mgr. Pelesz I:475-477 (487-489):
-Pope was Sixtus IV of Rome (1471-1484)
-Greek Patriarchs of Constantinople were anti-Catholic Symeon I (1471-1475), Raphael I (1475-1476) [AASS 8:I:202A-C (228)], and Maximus III Manasses (1476-1481) [AASS 8:I:202D-203F (228-229)]
-Titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was Jerome Lando (1474-1496)

Symeon of Kiev (1481-1488): Catholic
Bollandists 9:II:xxv:D, §105 (49):
Mgr. Pelesz I:477 (489): “faithful follower” of the Union
-Pope was Innocent VIII of Rome (1484-1492)
-Greek Patriarchs of Constantinople were Maximus III Manasses (1476-1481) [AASS 8:I:221A-C (247)], anti-Catholic Symeon I (1482-1486), Nephon II [8:I:218F-219E (244-245)], and Dionysius I (1488-1490) [AASS 8:I:219F-221A (245-247)]
-Titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was Jerome Lando (1474-1496)

Jonah Glezna of Kiev (1492-1494): Catholic
Bollandists 9:II:xxv:D, §105 (49):
Mgr. Pelesz I:478 (490):
Aurelio Palmieri in 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia: Jonah Glezna was “friendly to the union”

-Greek Patriarch of Constantinople was Maximus IV (1491-1497)
-Titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was Jerome Lando (1474-1496)
-Pope was Alexander VI of Rome (1492-1503)

St. Macarius the Hieromartyr of Kiev (1495-1497): Catholic
Bollandists 9:II:xxvi:A, §108 (50):
Bollandists 10:XI:118-119 (154-155):
Mgr. Pelesz I:476 (488):
Mgr. Pelesz I:478-479 (490-491): “weleher als Archimandrit von Wilno das im Jahre 1476 von Misaël an Papst Sixtus IV gerichtete Schreiben unterfertigt hat. Im Jahre 1495 versammelten sich (nach der Kiewer Chronik bei Karamsin VI. N. 403) die Bischöfe: Wassian von Wladimir, Lucas von Polozk, Wassian von Turow, Jonas von Luzk, und ordinirten den Archimandriten Macarius mit dem Beinamen Cort zum Metropoliten, und schickten dann einen gewissen Dionysius und einen Mönch, German, zum Patriarchen um den Segen. Der Patriarch Niphon schickte darauf seinen Gesandten Isaph mit der Confirmationsurkunde, so wie mit Briefen an den litauischen Grossfürsten und an die Bischöfe und die Gläubigen der Kiewer Metropolie. Der Gesandte des Patriarchen verlangte aber von den ruthenischen Bischöfen, dass sie künftig zuerst um den Segen bitten, bevor sie zur Ordination des Metropoliten schreiten, was diese auch zusagten; das jetzige Verfahren aber damit entschuldigten, dass auf dieselbe Weise, d. i. ohne vorherigen Segen des Patriarchen, auch der Metropolit Gregor I Semivlac ordinirt worden war. Daraus sieht man, dass die Kiewer Metropoliten immer um die Bestätigung des Patriarchen ersuchten (Kiew. Chron. Macarius wurde auf einer Reise nach Kiew im Dorfe Skryholovy von den Tataren gefangen und enthauptet.”
Mgr. Pelesz I:572 (584): “Es werden wohl einige Beweise dafür angeführt, allein der Umstand, dass sie das Abhängigkeitsverhältniss von Konstantinopel auch damals nicht aufgegeben haben, wo sie nicht mehr zweifeln konnten, dass die griechischen in Konstantinopel residirenden Patriarchen von der Union abfielen, und die unirten Patriarchen, wie aus dem obangeführten Breve des Papstes Alexander VI an den Wilnaer Bischof Albert hervorgeht, in Rom residirten, dieser Umstand macht die Orthodoxie der Metropoliten Simeon, Jonas I und Macarius I verdächtig. Ja sogar der Metropolit Joseph Soltan, der sich dann entschieden der Union angeschlossen hat, scheint anfangs dem Schisma gehuldigt zu haben, wie aus dem eben erwähnten Breve zu ersehen ist. Joseph Soltan arbeitete eifrig an der Ausbreitung der Union, allein er wurde in seinem Wirken durch die zahlreichen am Hofe der Königin Helena lebenden schismatischen Emissäre gehindert, und als dann sein Nachfolger sich offen für das Schisma erklärte, waren allmälig auch die letzen Spuren der Union verschwunden.”
Aurelio Palmieri in 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia: Macarius was “friendly to the union”
-Pope was Alexander VI of Rome (1492-1503)
-Greek Patriarch of Constantinople was Maximus IV (1491-1497)
-Titular Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople were Jerome Lando (1474-1496) and Giovanni Michiel (1497–1503)
Joseph II Bolgarynovich of Kiev (1498–1501): Catholic
Bollandists 9:II:xxvi:AB, §108 (50):

-Greek Patriarch of Constantinople was Joachim I (1498-1502) [AASS 8:I:222B-E (248)]

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