Post-Schism Russian Orthodox Saints (Fr. Joseph Schweigl)

Originally posted 11/2/2010.

I found the following information in Fr. Joseph Schweigl, “Menologio graeco-slavico post annum 1054,” Periodica de re morali, canonica, liturgica 3 (Rome 1941): 221-228.


Russia (Kievan Rus’) was a Catholic nation from the conversion of Grand Prince St. Vladimir I Sviatoslavich the Great (r. 980-1015), the Equal to the Apostles (July 15) in 988 until 1104.{1} Russia was mostly in schism from the Catholic Church from 1104 to 1461.{2} Fr. Schweigl of pious memory says that all 11th century Russian metropolitans were Catholic, some 12th century metropolitans were Catholic, all 13th century metropolitans were of suspect faith, no 14th century metropolitan was certainly Catholic, and around the time of the Council of Florence, Russia was split into a Catholic part and an Orthodox part, with the Catholic part lasting as late as 1520.{3}

When there is nothing against dogma,{4} the Church can make prudent decisions to include post-schism saints in the martyrology without reaching strictly scientific certainty as to the Catholic faith of the people in question,{5} but based on a moral certainty.{6}

According to Fr. Alphonse Raes, S.J. of happy memory, the first edition of the Russian Catholic liturgy of St. John Chrysostom approved by the Vatican and published in Rome, Typographie de Grottaferrata 1940, In-8º, 112 pages,{7} omits Peter of Moscow (1308-1326), Alexis of Moscow (1354-1378), Jonah of Moscow (1448-1461), and Philip II of Moscow (1566-1568) because the first two were consciously dependent on the Constantinople Patriarch when he was clearly in formal schism from Rome, and the latter two knowingly and deliberately rejected the Ecumenical Council of Florence.{8}

All you great Russian saints, pray for the conversion of Russia to the one true faith! Pray for me, the worst of sinners. Amen.
Notes & References
{1} Fr. Schweigl, p. 222.
{2} Ibid.
{3} Ibid. pp. 222-223, citing PELESCH, Geschichte der Union der ruthenischen Kirche mit Rom (1888) vol. I 169 ss, 418 ss, 571 ss; cf. LEIB, Rome, Kiev et Byzance a la fin du XI siècle (1088-1099), 1924.”
{4} Ibid. p. 224.
{5} The following saints appear in the list of saints of the Roman calendar that the Servant of God Pope Paul VI approved in 1969:
1. St. Sava of Serbia (January 14) [1174-1237]
2. St. Nicetas of Novgorod (January 31) [†1108]
3. St. John the Martyr of Vilnius (April 14) [†1342]
4. St. Anthony the Martyr of Vilnius (April 14) [†1342]
5. St. Eustace the Martyr of Vilnius (April 14) [†1342]
6. St. Stephen the Enlightener of Perm (April 26) [1340-1396]
7. St. Stephen Pechersky (April 27) [†1094]
8. St. Cyril of Turov (April 28) [1130-1182]
9. St. Ignatius of Rostov (April 28) [†1288]
10. St. Isaiah the Wonderworker of Rostov (May 15) [†1090]
11. St. Euphrosyne of Polotsk (May 23) [†1173]
12. St. Leontius of Rostov (May 23) [†1077]
13. St. Nicetas the Wonderworker of Pereaslavl (May 24) [†1186]
14. St. German of Valaam (June 28) [†?]
15. St. Sergius of Valaam (June 28) [†?]
16. St. Anthony of the Kiev Caves (July 10) [983-1073]
17. St. Theodosius of the Kiev Caves (July 10)
18. St. Theodore the Black of Yaroslavl (September 19) [†1299]
19. St. David of Yaroslavl (September 19) [†1299]
20. St. Constantine of Yaroslavl (September 19) [†1299]
21. St. Michael the Martyr, Wonderworker of Chernigov (September 21) [†1246]
22. St. Theodore the Martyr, Wonderworker of Chernigov (September 21) [†1246]
23. St. Sergius the Wonderworker of Radonezh (September 25) [1314-1392]
24. St. Abraham the Wonderworker of Rostov (October 29) [†1073]
25. St. Barlaam of Khutyn (November 6) [†1193]
The following saints appear on the Ruthenian calendar of “the Byzantine Ruthenian Metropolitan Church of Pittsburgh”:
26. St. Gregory Palamas the Wonderworker of Thessalonica (Second Sunday of Great Lent) [1296-1359]
27. St. Nicephorus the Solitary of the Medikion Monastery on Mt. Athos (May 7) [†1300?]
28. St. Parasceva Petca the New of Tarnovo (October 14) [†1201?]
{6} Fr. Schweigl, p. 228.
{7} Fr. Alphonse Raes, S.J. “La première édition romaine de la liturgie de S. Jean Chrysostome en staroslave,” Orientalia christiana periodica 7 (1941): 518.
{8} Op. cit., p. 521.

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3 Responses to Post-Schism Russian Orthodox Saints (Fr. Joseph Schweigl)

  1. […] Here is what I posted: The issue [re:veneration of post-schism Orthodox saints] is the doubt as to whether many of these men on the calendars were Catholic, since, as Dr. Ludwig Ott says, the proposition “Membership of the Church is necessary for all men for salvation” is De fide (Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, 1957 edition, p. 310), that is, necessary to believe with divine and Catholic faith under pain of automatic excommunication (CIC 751; 1364 §1). If someone were to knowingly and deliberately refuse to become Catholic before death, he would die a formal schismatic who is not a member of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church either “in re” or even “in voto” via explicit or implicit desire. If the Church is able to come to a moral certainty (not necessarily a scientific certainty) that the person in question died a fully incorporated member of the Catholic Church (CCC 837) or died desiring to become Catholic (even after a long period of anti-Catholicism), she can approve veneration of such saints. […]

  2. […] following are labeled as saints: *Metropolitan Alexis of Moscow [r. 1354-1378] (15) – omitted from Russian Catholic Liturgy in 1940 *Euphrosyne of Polotsk [†1173] (187; mentioned in XIII:1148) *Bishop Euthymius of Novgorod […]

  3. […] of Kiev (Moscow as of 1325) (1308-1326): Catholic, then Orthodox -omitted from 1940 Russian Catholic Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom -Andrew Shipman: “Peter, Metropolitan of Kieff, who was then in union with Rome, in 1316 […]

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