When Does the Gospel of St. Mark End?

January 29, 2010

Originally posted 1/29/2010.

My thanks to James E. Snapp, Jr. for the corrections!

 

Whether the Gospel of St. Mark ends at 16:8?

Answer: In the negative.

 

Mk 16:9-20 is authentic and canonical. Although Mk 16:9-20 is not in B and Aleph, it is in all the other uncial manuscripts: A, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, M, N, S, U, V, X, Gamma, Delta, Pi, Sigma, Omega, and Beth.{1} It is in a great many cursive manuscripts,{2} all the Latin manuscripts except k,{3} all Syriac manuscripts except the Sinaitic version,{4} in most Coptic{5} and Gothic{6} manuscripts, and in most Armenian manuscripts.{7} It was probably used in the Liturgy of the Greek Catholic Church in the third century,{8} and was definitely used in the Liturgy in the fourth century.{9} Second century Church Fathers Bishop St. Irenaeus of Lyons [Against Heresies 3:10:5], and probably St. Justin Martyr and the Shepherd of Hermas, refer to Mk 16:9-20.{10} In the third century, Priest St. Hippolytus the Martyr of Rome quotes from the verses in question.{11} In the fourth century, the long version of Mark is cited or alluded to by Hieromonk St. Aphrahat the Sage of Persia [Demonstration 1:17 of Faith], Bishop St. Cyril of Jerusalem (Doctor), Bishop St. Epiphanius of Salamis, Bishop St. Gregory of Nyssa, St. Caesarius of Nazianzus, Archbishop St. John I Chrysostom the Great of Constantinople (Doctor) [Homily 38:5 on First Corinthians], Bishop Macarius of Magnesia, Bishop St. Augustine the Great of Hippo (Doctor of Grace) [On Merit and the Forgiveness of Sins and the Baptism of Infants 3:3,6; On the Soul and Its Origin 2:17,23], Bishop St. Ambrose the Great of Milan (Doctor) [Concerning Repentance 1:18; Exposition of the Christian Faith 1:14:86; On the Holy Spirit 2:13:145], and many others.{11}
Notes & References
{1} MacRory, Joseph. “Gospel of Saint Mark.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 29 Jan. 2010 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09674b.htm>.
{2} Ibid. James E. Snapp, Jr., points out that the deteriorated quality of many cursive manuscripts falsifies the old Catholic Encyclopedia‘s outdated assertion.
{3} Ibid.
{4} Ibid.
{5} Ibid. Not all the Coptic manuscripts, as the old Catholic Encyclopedia says. James E. Snapp, Jr., points out that a 1972 Coptic manuscript falsifies the old Catholic Encyclopedia‘s outdated assertion.
{6} Ibid.
{7} Ibid.
{8} Ibid.
{9} Ibid.
{10} Ibid.
{11} Ibid.


Internal Evidence of Matthean Priority

January 29, 2010

Originally posted 1/29/2010.

The old Catholic Encyclopedia gives some good internal arguments that St. Matthew wrote his Gospel before St. Mark.{1} Lots of scholars assume that St. Matthew depended on St. Mark for his narrative, but it is hard to explain the following facts within the framework of the theory that St. Matthew had St. Mark’s Gospel before him.

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Pope Gregory VI of Rome Bibliography

January 23, 2010

Originally posted 1/23/2010.

*H. H. ANTON, “Die Synode von Sutri, ihr zeitgeschichtlicher Kontext und Nachklang,” Zeitschrift der Savingny-Stifung für Rechtsgeschichte. Germanistische Abteilung (Wien 1997) 576–84.
*O. J. BLUM, “Gregory VI, Pope,” New Catholic Encyclopedia (Detroit 2003) 6:489-491.
*GIOVANNI BATTISTA BORINO, “L’elezione e la deposizione di Gregorio VI,” Archivio della Società Romana di Storia Patria (1916) 39:142–252,295–410.
*A. CLERVAL, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. VACANT (Paris 1921) 6.2:1791.
*Liber Pontificalis, ed. LOUIS DUCHESNE (Paris 1892) 2:270-271.
*D. FEYTMANS, “Grégoire VI était – il simoniaque?” Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire (1932) 11:130-137.
*JOHANNES HALLER, Das Papsttum: Idee und Wirklichkeit (Stuttgart 1951) 2:279-280,572-576.
*KLAUS-JÜRGEN HERMANN, Das Tuskulaner Papstum 1012–1046 (Stuttgart 1973) 154–60.
*–. “Gregory VI,” The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, ed. PHILIPPE LEVILLAIN (New York 2002) 2:647-648.
*J. N. D. KELLY, Oxford Dictionary of Popes (Oxford 1986) 144-145.
*JOHANNES LAUDAGE, “Gregory VI., Päpst,” Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche (Freiburg 1995) 4:1015-1016.
*REGINALD LANE POOLE, “Benedict IX and Gregory VI,” Proceedings of the British Academy (London 1917–18) 8:199–235.
*FRANZ-JOSEF SCHMALE, “Die “Absetzung” Gregors VI. in Sutri und die synodale Tradition,” Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum (1979) 11:58-59.
*FRANZ XAVER SEPPELT, Geschichte der Päpste von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des 20. Jh. (Munich 1934) 2:406–409.
*JOHANNES MATTHIAS WATTERICH, Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae (Leipzig 1862) 1:72-73,75-80,712-716.
*O. WIDDING, “An Old Norse Version of a Pamphlet on the Papacy of Gregor VI,” Analecta Romana Instituti Danici (Odense 1986) 15:51–65.
*HARALD ZIMMERMANN, Papstabsetzungen des Mittelalters (Graz, Vienna, Cologne 1968) 122-136.

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Antipope Sylvester III Bibliography

January 21, 2010

Originally posted 1/20/2010.

Update 6/10/2010: I regard Sylvester III (r. 1/20/1045-2/10/1045; †1063) as an antipope rivaling the true pope, the notoriously wicked Benedict IX, because, as Dr. Warren H. Caroll says, “there is no power on earth which may depose a Pope. Any duly elected Pope remains therefore in office until he dies or resigns.”{1}

Notes & References
{1} Carroll, Dr. Warren H. “Anti-Popes.” Eternal World Television Network. 10 Jun. 2010 <http://www.ewtn.com/library/HOMELIBR/ANTIPOPE.TXT>.

Here is the bibliography:
*ÉMILE AMANN, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. Vacant (Paris 1941) 14.2:2083-2084.
*F. BAIX and J. LADIN, Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, ed. A. BAUDRILLART et al. (Paris 1934) 8:99–101.
*GEOFFREY BARRACLOUGH, The Medieval Papacy (New York 1968) 71.
*Liber Pontificalis, ed. LOUIS DUCHESNE (Paris 1892) 270.
*J. N. D. KELLY, Oxford Dictionary of Popes (Oxford 1986) 144.
*HORACE KINDER MANN, The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages from 590 to 1304 (London 1910) 5:249,250,252-253,254,256,259-260,276.
*FRANZ XAVER SEPPELT, Geschichte der Päpste von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des 20. Jh. (Munich 1934) 2:405–408.
*JAMES A. SHEPPARD, “Sylvester III, Pope,” New Catholic Encyclopedia (Detroit 2003) 13:659.
*JOHANNES MATTHIAS WATTERICH, Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae (Leipzig 1862) 1:70,72-76,713-715.
*HARALD ZIMMERMANN, Papstabsetzungen des Mittelalters (Graz, Vienna, Cologne, 1968).

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Papal Deposition Bibliography

January 21, 2010

Originally posted 1/20/2010.

An expanded version of the previous post on the DTC bibliography, with New Catholic Encyclopedia style citations.

GIOVANNI BATTISTA BORINO, “L’elezione e la deposizione di Gregorio VI,” Archivio della Società Romana di Storia Patria 39 (1916) 142–252, 295–410.
JOSEPH EPIPHANE-DARRAS, A General History of the Catholic Church (New York 1865) 2:594.
JOSEPH CARDINAL HERGENRÖTHER, Handbuch der allgemeinen Kirchengeschichte (Freiburg 1880) 2:65.
HORACE KINDER MANN, The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages from 590 to 1304 (London 1910) 4:273–281.
–. The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages from 590 to 1304 (London 1910) 5:260-262,266-268,287,289-290,298-299.
LUDWIG PASTOR, The History of the Popes From the Close of the Middle Ages (London 1891) 1:190-191.
–. The History of the Popes From the Close of the Middle Ages (London 1900) 4:419.
FRANZ-JOSEF SCHMALE, “Die ‘Absetzung’ Gregors VI. in Sutri und die synodale Tradition,” Annarium Historiae Concilium 11 (1979) 55-103.
E. VACANDARD, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. VACANT et al. (Paris 1911) 4.1:520-521.
SALVATORE VACCA, Prima sedes a nemine iudicatur: genesi e sviluppo storico dell’assioma fino al Decreto di Graziano (Rome 1993).
HARALD ZIMMERMANN, “Die Deposition der Päpste Johannes XII., Leo VIII. und Benedikt V.,” Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung 68 (1960) 209–225.
–Papstabsetzungen des Mittelalters (Graz, Vienna, Cologne 1968).


Deposition & Degradation of Clerics: DTC Bibliography

January 21, 2010

Originally posted 1/19/2010.

From the article “Déposition et dégradation des clercs” by E. VACANDARD, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. VACANT et al. (Paris 1911) 4.1:520-521:

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Can A Legitimate Pope Be Deposed?

January 19, 2010

Originally posted 1/18/2010.

Archbishop St. Avitus of Vienne: “How can the Head of the Universal Church be judged by his inferiors? If any one of the other pontiffs stray from the right way, he can be reformed; but when the Pope is arraigned for judgment, it is no longer a single bishop, it is the whole episcopate, which is impugned.”{1}
Bishops of France (Rome; 800), on the charges against Pope St. Leo III of Rome that they had been called to examine: “We dare not sit in judgment upon the Apostolic See, the chief of all the churches of God. It belongs to that See and to its Pontiff to judge us all, being himself subject to no other judgment, according to the traditions of ancient discipline.”{2}
Eighth Ecumenical Council (Constantinople IV; 869-870), Canon 21: “If anyone, strong in the secular power, seek to expel the Sovereign Pontiff from his See, let him be anathema!”{3}

Joseph Cardinal Hergenröther: “No right existed by which the Pope [if really legitimate, see p. 120, note †, supra] could be deposed; if Gregory broke his word, he sinned, but he did not forfeit his Pontificate. If there was no right to depose the Pope there was no right to appoint a new one.”{4}
Dr. Ludwig von Pastor: “Gallicanism, too, had prepared the ground for the doctrine of the sovereignty of the people, since according to the Gallicans, authority to govern is really vested in the universal Church, the Pope and the Bishops only exercising power in its name, so that a General Council may call the Pope to account and even depose him.”{5}
Dr. Warren H. Carroll: “there is no power on earth which may depose a Pope. Any duly elected Pope remains therefore in office until he dies or resigns.”{6}

Anglican scholar J.N.D. Kelly: “The validity of John’s deposition, which violated the ancient principle that the holy see can be judged by no earthly power, has been called in question.”{7}

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